Has anyone discovered a way to take effective notes while training for a new job?

What apps and workflows do you use while training and learning side by side?
How do you remember if/when there is an assessment or exams related to that training?

I’m not sure I understand your question(s).

First, I’ve been retired for over 3 years, so I can’t say I can really relate to your situation. Last time I was looking for a job was 23 years ago. Having said that, it seems like you are asking several things.

A little more information about what kind of training and the urgency/timing of the training in relation to finding a new job, might enable better answers. Finding a new job in the same field as you are currently employed in is a completely different situation from, if you’re out of a job and need to pass some kind of test, say real estate licensure examination, or CDL license tests. It would be completely different from, if you are just out of high school and plan to go to school for a few years before getting an entry level position in some field.

If the question is calendar, reminder, there are many options, depending on your ecosystem of choice (Mac, Windows, Linux, Android, etc.).

If the question is, keeping notes so that you can recall information from training/learning, there are a couple of approaches which you might consider. Zettelkasten is a method for capturing and organizing information which has become a thing, and is supported, to various degrees, by lots of tools. Spaced Repitition is another method to help solidify memory and recall of facts. There are also several tools which claim to provide such assistance. There are some programs/apps which claim to support both of these activities. Both of these could be done with a pack of note cards, or on a fancy computing device or group of devices, depending on what is available to you.

Above all, I’d say that you should remember that looking for and finding the right job, should be viewed as fun, and a learning experience in and of itself. If the job involves something which you are interested in, you may not need near as much help remembering things that would qualify you for the position. Learning on the job is the best way to learn, in my opinion.

https://midterm.app/ looks like a free note taking reviewing program which is available on a lot of platforms. Seems to be single developer. Seems active on Discord and Reddit. Have not used it myself, but looks like it is a good start on a PKM tool to me.